Heavy drinking rewires brain making it harder for boozers to recover from traumatic experiences
11:46 GMT, 3 September 2012
Doctors have long recognized a link between alcoholism and anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder.
Now researchers have found that heavy alcohol use actually rewires brain circuitry, making it harder for binge drinkers to recover psychologically following a traumatic experience.
'There's a whole spectrum to how people react to a traumatic event,' said study author Dr Thomas Kash, of the University of North Carolina.
'It's the recovery that we're looking at – the ability to say 'this is not dangerous anymore.'
People may be tempted to start drinking to block out a painful time in life, but experts have found this can cause problems long term
'Basically, our research shows that chronic exposure to alcohol can cause a deficit with regard to how our cognitive brain centres control our emotional brain centres.'
The study, which has been published online by the journal Nature Neuroscience, was conducted by scientists at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and UNC's Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies.
Over the course of a month, the
researchers gave one group of mice doses of alcohol equivalent to double
the legal driving limit in humans. A second group of mice was given no
alcohol. The team then used mild electric shocks to train all the mice
to fear the sound of a brief tone.
When the tone was repeatedly played
without the accompanying electric shock, the mice with no alcohol
exposure gradually stopped fearing it. The mice with chronic alcohol
exposure, on the other hand, froze in place each time the tone was
played, even long after the electric shocks had stopped.
Dr Thomas Kash studies why alcoholics relapse
The pattern is similar to what is seen
in patients with PTSD, who have trouble overcoming fear even when they
are no longer in a dangerous situation.
Co-author Dr Andrew Holmes from NIAAA, said: 'A history of heavy alcohol abuse could impair a critical mechanism for recovering from a trauma, and in doing so put people at greater risk for PTSD.'
The researchers traced the negative effect of drinking to differences in the neural circuitry of the alcohol-exposed mice. Comparing the brains of the mice, researchers noticed nerve cells in the prefrontal cortex of the alcohol-exposed mice actually had a different shape than those of the other mice. In addition, the activity of a key receptor, NMDA, was suppressed in the mice given heavy doses of alcohol.
Dr Holmes said the findings are valuable because they pinpoint exactly where alcohol causes damage that leads to problems overcoming fear.
'We're not only seeing that alcohol has detrimental effects on a clinically important emotional process, but we're able to offer some insight into how alcohol might do so by disrupting the functioning of some very specific brain circuits,' he said.
Understanding the relationship between alcohol and anxiety at the molecular level could offer new possibilities for developing drugs to help patients with anxiety disorders who also have a history of heavy alcohol use.
'This study is exciting because it gives us a specific molecule to look at in a specific brain region, thus opening the door to discovering new methods to treat these disorders,' said Dr Kash.