Want to delay fatherhood Freeze sperm in your 30s potential dads are told as research reveals older men pass on faulty genes40-year-old father two-and-half times more likely to pass on damaging mutations than 20-year-oldGenes linked to autism and schizophreniaExperts advise ageing men to freeze their sperm
01:35 GMT, 23 August 2012
The march of time: Researchers have found that older fathers pass down the majority of the faulty genes linked to conditions such as schizophrenia (file picture posed by models)
Men delaying fatherhood have been told to consider freezing their sperm after a study showed they also have a rapidly ticking biological clock.
Researchers found older fathers pass down the majority of the faulty genes linked to conditions such as autism and schizophrenia.
Scientists in Iceland discovered 97 per cent of genetic mutations were caused by the age of the father, while the mother’s age had no effect at all.
The child of a 40-year-old father had two-and-a-half times as many potentially damaging mutations as that of a 20-year-old, and the gap increased with every passing year.
Reacting to the study, Alexey Kondrashov, a professor of evolutionary biology at Michigan University, said if the findings were confirmed, ‘collecting the sperm of young adult men and cool-storing it for later use could be a wise individual decision’.
While it was suspected that the trend towards late fatherhood may be related to rising rates of autism, this was the first large-scale test.
Experts say the study raises the possibility that men in their thirties should freeze their sperm if they are planning to have children late in life like Rod Stewart or Sir Paul McCartney.
Genetic screening was carried out on 78 families with children who were
either on the autistic spectrum or had been diagnosed with
This information was compared with data from hundreds more families with no link to either condition.
Everyone has some genetic mutations, but on average children had an
additional two for every year of the father’s life. A 20-year-old father
transmitted on average 25 mutations to his child, while 40-year-old
fathers, the oldest in the study, transmitted around 65.
The mother transmitted around 15, regardless of her age.Lead author Dr Kari Stefansson, of deCODE, a leading genetics firm in
Reykjavik, said the father’s age was ‘an extraordinarily important force
in evolution’, adding: ‘The number of mutations coming from the mother
is constant, which makes sense as her eggs are formed before she is
born, whereas men constantly generate sperm through to old age.
Think ahead: Experts say the study raises the possibility that men in their 30s should freeze their sperm if they are planning to have children late in life
‘The very important conclusion we can draw from this is that the concern
focused on the increasing age of mothers is probably misplaced.
‘They may be off the hook, and men are on it – as disorders from these
mutations are much more common than the risks associated with older
The researchers, writing in the journal Nature, say the father’s age
seems to increase problems with brain function – such as autism,
schizophrenia and possibly dyslexia and low intelligence.
However, while there is no increase in genetic mutations, older mothers
are known to increase their child’s risk of more serious chromosome
abnormalities, which make them more likely to miscarry or have children
with Down’s syndrome.
Dr Allan Pacey, fertility expert at the University of Sheffield, said
the study ‘should remind us that nature designed us to have our children
at a young age and if at all possible men and women should not delay
parenthood if they are in a position not to’.
Darren Griffin, genetics professor at the University of Kent, said older
fathers should not panic as the risk is still small – there are three
billion letters in the human DNA code and the number of mutations found
was only in the dozens – while the risk from older mothers was ‘far more
potent and measurable’.